The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) encodes one member of the FGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) family, which includes four kinases: FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4 (Figure 1). FGFR TKs play crucial roles in development and have been shown in cancers to be deregulated by amplification, point mutation, or translocation (Turner and Grose 2010). Amplification or activation of FGFR2 has been reported in breast cancer and gastric cancer (Jain and Turner 2012). FGFR2 mutations have been observed in endometrial cancer and breast cancer (Dutt et al. 2008; Jain and Turner 2012; Reintjes et al. 2013).
Figure 1. Schematic of FGFR signaling pathway. Growth factor binding to FGFR results in activation of the MAPK signaling pathway (RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK). The letter "K" within the schema denotes the tyrosine kinase domain.