• What is BRAF?
  • BRAF in Glioma
  • Clinical Trials

BRAF

BRAF belongs to a family of serine-threonine protein kinases that includes ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF (RAF1). RAF kinases are central mediators in the MAP kinase signaling cascade and exert their effect predominantly through phosphorylation and activation of MEK. This occurs following the dimerization (hetero- or homo-) of the RAF molecules. As part of the MAP kinase pathway, RAF is involved in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and transcriptional regulation.

Mutant BRAF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, and ovarian cancer (Davies et al. 2002). Mutant BRAF has been observed in these cancers as well as glioma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).

mapk-pk13.png

Figure 1. Schematic of the MAPK and PI3K pathways. Growth factor binding to receptor tyrosine kinase results in activation of the MAPK signaling pathway (RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK) and the PI3K pathway (PI3K-AKT-mTOR). The letter "K" within the schema denotes the tyrosine kinase domain.

Related Pathways

Contributors: Christine M. Lovly, M.D., Ph.D., Leora Horn, M.D., M.Sc., William Pao, M.D., Ph.D. (through April 2014)

Suggested Citation: Lovly, C., L. Horn, W. Pao. 2015. BRAF. My Cancer Genome https://www.padiracinnovation.org/content/disease/glioma/braf/?tab=0 (Updated December 7).

Last Updated: December 7, 2015

BRAF in Glioma

BRAF is mutated in 3% of glioma cases (COSMIC). BRAF is mutated in most low-grade pediatric gliomas and in many adult gliomas (Horbinski 2012​). Both BRAF V600E mutations and BRAF fusions have been observed (Horbinski 2012).

Contributors: Ty W. Abel, M.D., Ph.D., Kenneth D. Aldape, M.D., Stephen W. Clark, M.D., Ph.D., Cindy L. Vnencak-Jones, Ph.D., Bret Mobley, M.D., M.S.

Suggested Citation: Abel, T., K. Aldape, S. Clark, C. Vnencak-Jones, B. Mobley. 2014. BRAF in Glioma. My Cancer Genome https://www.padiracinnovation.org/content/disease/glioma/braf/ (Updated September 9).

Last Updated: September 9, 2014

My Cancer Genome has released its new and improved cancer clinical trials search tool on our beta website. Please visit beta.padiracinnovation.org to check it out!

Disclaimer: The information presented at padiracinnovation.org is compiled from sources believed to be reliable. Extensive efforts have been made to make this information as accurate and as up-to-date as possible. However, the accuracy and completeness of this information cannot be guaranteed. Despite our best efforts, this information may contain typographical errors and omissions. The contents are to be used only as a guide, and health care providers should employ sound clinical judgment in interpreting this information for individual patient care.