Flavonoid, chromone-rich, Euscaphis, attenuated, alcoholic, Ethnopharmacological, relevance:
Contrary to appearances, there is some links in this post with neurodegenerative diseases. Alcoholic liver injury are one kind of cellular stress. All drugs that can treat cellular stress, and especially Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, can probably be used against most common neurodegenerative diseases. The same is true for drugs with free radicals scavenging activity.
Euscaphis konishii Hayata is a traditional medicinal plant in China, and its leaves are usually used to make dishes for hepatic or gastrointestinal issues by Chinese She nationality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. Hepatocellular carcinoma causes 662,000 deaths worldwide per year about half of them in China.
Pharmacological analysis showed that E. konishii leaves contain high levels of flavonoids and chromones with favorable anti-hepatoma effect. 8 flavonoids and 2 chromones were recognized in the chromone-rich extract. Chromones are found throughout the plant kingdom, where they serve as essential components of a number of structural polymers, provide protection from ultraviolet light, defend against herbivores and pathogens, and also mediate plant-pollinator interactions as floral pigments and scent compounds.
Alcohol-fed mice disease model were used to assess the hepatoprotective effects of these chromone-rich extract.
Chromone-rich extract represented strong free radicals scavenging activity in vitro. With oral administration, chromone-rich extract dose-dependently decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase in alcohol-fed mice.
Chromone-rich extract gradually increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the alcohol-treated liver tissues. Chromone-rich extract also alleviated the hepatic inflammation, inhibited the hepatocyte apoptosis and lessened the alcohol-induced histological alteration and lipid accumulation in the liver tissues.
Chromone-rich extract administration inhibited the overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones signaling and unfolded protein response pathways to defense the ER-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment with chromone-rich extract also restored the mitochondrial membrane potentials andadenosine triphosphate levels, which in turn suppressed the Cytochrome C release and mitochondria-induced apoptosis.
Chromone-rich extract conferred great protection against alcoholic liver injury, which might be associated with its viability through suppressing reactive oxygen species stress and hepatocyte apoptosis.
It may be possible they also have positive effects in neurodegenerative diseases.